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This work examines the philosophy of the medieval Islamic Azerbaijani poet Nasimi, which is associated with the substantiation of the unity of man and the creator, the absolutization of anthropotheism. This idea has similarities with the statements of the Ancient Greek sophist Protagoras (5th century BC) and the Christian theologian Pelagius (5th century AD). The influence of Nasimi's philosophy on the subsequent establishment of anthropocentrism and humanism in Europe is also logical. Before tracing this ideological chain и, the author highlights the historical connection of the Arab-Muslim culture with the culture of antiquity, then with the European culture of the Renaissance and modern times. Due to several well-known historical events, the creations of antiquity in the Middle Ages became the property of the Arab-Muslim world. Then, as the ecclesiastical force weakened, they returned to Europe, became the basis of new philosophical teachings and scientific theories. This kind of circulation of ideas had an impact on the development of anthropocentrism and humanism. Revealing the history of great ideas, their understanding by contemporaries, transformation in the public consciousness, and actualization under favorable circumstances allow revealing the relationship and dynamics of the interweaving of anthropo-, socio-cultural genesis.